The food forest

Three apple trees are growing in a guild with perennial herbs and flowers. The perennials attract pollinators and other beneficial insects, and Baptisia feeds the soil. Water is provided for birds and insects, which control insect pests. The white bags in the trees contain deer repellent.

Imagine walking through the forest that covered Adams County before William Penn set foot in Pennsylvania. It was different then the one we see today in several respects.

First, most of the trees were large, standing tall with wide girths, and there was not much understory. You might think there would be chestnuts. There were lots of them! And as you wandered, nearing a large creek near an Indian settlement, you would walk into a partial clearing, an area with a sparse canopy, and more understory and ground cover.

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